The Cohort

Formation of the Cohort – 1989 to 1991

Between 1989 and 1991, 2900 pregnant women volunteered to be part of the study at King Edward Memorial Hospital looking a prenatal ultrasound scans when they were 18 weeks pregnant. Some of the mothers were followed up at 24, 28 and 38 weeks gestation. The families then continued with follow-up assessments of their babies. 2868 babies remained with the study and were examined on the first or second day after birth by a child health nurse in King Edward Memorial Hospital.

  • Pregnancy
  • Birth

Follow-up of babies and toddlers: 1991 – 1995

The initial follow-up of the Raine Study babies and toddlers took place in Princess Margaret Hospital, where the Telethon Institute for Child Health Research was located. The children were examined at one, two and three years of age to assess and record their growth and development. The parents of the Raine Study child completed a questionnaire on the child. The babies and toddlers height, weight, blood pressure, physical health and developmental progress were measured. Information on the parents was also collected.

Five year follow-up: 1995 – 1998

When their child was five years old, the parents were asked to complete a questionnaire and to bring their child for a physical assessment at Princess Margaret Hospital. The assessment at age five included a lung function test, allergy testing and a hearing test.

Eight year follow-up: 1998 – 2000

The age eight year follow-up of the Raine Study children took place in the newly opened Telethon Institute for Child Health Research in Roberts Road. During this follow-up the Raine Study parents completed questionnaires and their child completed tasks in relation to reading and mathematical ability. The child also did a physical fitness test on an exercise bicycle, and the parents and child provided blood samples.

Ten year follow-up: 2000 – 2003

The ten year follow-up focussed on developmental health, with an emphasis on schooling, language development, behaviour and general health, parent health and happiness. The Raine Study participant’s school teacher provided information on the school, the child’s academic, literacy and numeracy performance and the child’s behaviour and special needs.

Thirteen/fourteen year follow-up: 2003 – 2006

The Raine Study participants, their primary and secondary caregivers, school teacher and school principal were asked to complete questionnaires. The child also attended the Telethon Institute for Child Heath Research for a physical assessment . A blood sample was provided by the participants and their parents. The Raine Study participants also did lung function and allergy testing.

Sixteen/seventeen year follow-up: 2006 – 2009

A range of measurements including physical fitness and motor competence, diet and nutrition, cardiovascular health, back pain, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, cognitive tests, liver ultrasounds and lung function testing were performed. Participants and their parents provided a blood sample. The follow up was conducted at the Telethon Institute for Child Health Research during the years when the participants were completing high school.

Eighteen year Challenge Study: 2009 – 2010

When the participants turned 18 years of age, they were asked to complete a challenge test to examine their stress response. During the Raine Challenge-me study participants were involved in two separate challenge tests and their blood and saliva samples were collected to measure their peak stress hormone levels and the decline in stress hormone levels.

Twenty year follow-up: 2010 – 2012

The follow-up of the cohort at 20 years of age was conducted at the Lions Eye Institute and participants underwent a comprehensive eye examination. They also had a DXA scan to measure bone density and body composition, a fibroscan to measure liver stiffness using new technology. Male participants were involved in a study examining male fertility.

Twenty two year follow-up: 2012 – 2014 (Gen2_22)

The twenty two year cohort assessment was conducted at the University of Western Australia Centre for Sleep Science. Participants had a sleep study, which involved an overnight stay and an assessment of their sleeping patterns. They also had a comprehensive lung function and asthma test, height and weight measurement, blood pressure, muscle endurance and pressure testing. The cohort participants also provided blood samples.

Follow up of Raine Study Parents: 2014-2017 (Gen1_26_sleep)

Parents of Raine Study participants who completed an overnight sleep study during the 22 year cohort follow up were invited to attend an overnight sleep study at the UWA Centre for Sleep Science. In addition, other tests including eyesight measurements, a DXA scan, lung function testing, pressure and cold pain testing, computer based cognitive functioning test, blood pressure, anthropometric testing, accelerometry and the provision of a fasting blood sample were performed.

Disturbed sleep is common in the Australian community and the objectives of the study are to establish the prevalence, phenotype and genetic basis of sleep disorders, particularly obstructive sleep apnea, insomnia, restless legs syndrome and periodic leg movement syndrome in middle aged people. Together the parent and children datasets will determine associations between parent and child sleep disorders and lead to the discovery of genetic variants associated with common sleep disorders.

Twenty five: Work place factors (Gen2_26_work_e) 2015-2016

All Raine Study participants were sent an online questionnaire for completion. The questionnaire was aimed to examine the working environment and how this affects an individual’s health, work performance and behaviour. The study also looked at how personality and demographics, and their interactions, shape or constrain individuals’ opportunities to undertake high quality work and vice versa.

Twenty-seven: Current follow up

We are currently undertaking the follow-up of the Cohort participants at age 27.  This follow-up is concentrating on cardiovascular health and internal fat and involves having an MRI scan. The MRI scan measures  ectopic fat (fat around your internal organs).  Very little is known about ectopic fat, what causes it and the effect it has on health.

Participants will be contacted and invited to a follow-up assessment at the Raine Study offices, at UWA and also to have an MRI scan. Testing includes:

  • Measurement of  height, weight.
  • Measurement of blood pressure.
  • Measure of the  whole body blood pressure
  • Providing a fasting blood sample.
  • Eye testing
  • Questionnaires